## What is freeness in pulp?

Freeness, and its opposite term slowness, denotes how fast or slow water drains through a fiber mat. A stock/furnish is free when water drains through the mat rapidly. This has been the most common test performed on pulp/furnish in both mills and laboratories.

## What is freeness in paper?

The industry uses a standard measure called the freeness to represent this and other properties for papermaking pulps. The freeness is the total volume of water discharged from a side orifice of a specific configuration while the pulp suspension drains freely under gravity.

**How do you test pulp freeness?**

Standard tests of pulp freeness are based on gravity dewatering throughout a screen. The devices are designed so that an operator can judge the rate of dewatering by monitoring the volume of liquid collected in a graduated cylinder.

### What is Canadian standard freeness?

Measures the rate of drainage of a diluted pulp suspension. The drainage rate is related to the surface conditions and swelling of the fibers. It is widely used to track the changes in the drainage rate of various chemical pulps during beating and refining.

### What does freeness mean?

freeness (usually uncountable, plural freenesses) The state or condition of being free (unconstrained, unconfined, unincumbered, unobstructed, or free-spirited). quotations ▼ Openness; unreservedness; frankness; ingenuousness; candor. The freeness of a confession.

**What is SR of pulp?**

SR – higher numbers mean slower draining. CSF developed as a measure of groundwood quality. CSF decreases with refining. CSF sensitive to fines and water quality.

#### How do you calculate pulp yield?

Formula 1 gives 10 = [(1,000 kg – DP) / 1,000 kg] * 100 solving: DP = 900 kg of oven-dry fiber per tonne of pulp. Formula 2 gives 45 = (900 kg / DW) * 100 solving: DW = 2,000 kg oven-dry wood per tonne of pulp. Here the yield of bleached kraft pulp is assumed to be 45% (Figure 8-1).

#### How do you find the consistency of pulp?

Calculate the consistency using the formula Consistency (in percent) equals the fiber weight (in grams) divided by the sample volume used (in milliliters) times 100.

**What is SR in pulp?**

## What is pulp viscosity?

3.1 The solution viscosity of a pulp gives an indication of the average degree of polymerization of the cellulose. Such a test therefore gives a relative indication of the degradation (decrease in cellulose molecular weight) resulting from the pulping and/or bleaching process.

## What is CSF paper?

Canadian Standard Freeness (CSF) and Schopper-Riegler (SR) are two well-known quality measurements in stock preparation. Both methods are ways to measure and control refining to ensure that the pulp is strong enough but also that the dewatering rate on the paper, board or tissue machine is in the right interval.

**How is drainage rate measured?**

Divide total inches by total hours to calculate the soil drainage rate. Fill the hole with 12 inches of water. if the water drains from the hole in 40 hours, the drainage or infiltration rate is: 12 inches divided by 40 hours = 0.3 inches per hour.

### What is degree Sr of pulp?

### How is pulp consistency calculated?

**What is Kappa number in pulping?**

The Kappa number is an indication of the lignin content or bleachability of pulp. ISO 302:2015 is applicable to all kinds of chemical pulps and semi-chemical pulps within the Kappa number range 1 to 100.

#### What is pulp density?

Pulp density describes the mass of mineral in unit volume of liquid available, usually expressed as a % (w/v).

#### What is CSF in pulp and paper?

**What is SR in pulp and paper?**

L&W SR Tester measures the drainage of a pulp suspension, as determined by the Schopper-Riegler method and expressed as the SR number. The Schopper-Riegler method is intended for long fibred pulps that produce a dense fibre mat on the screen.

## What is a 1% slope for drainage?

1/8″ per foot

All of your drain pipe (with one exception) must slope slightly downhill. Usually 1/8″ per foot is plenty for drainage, this is the same as the commonly recommended 1% slope.

## What is a 1 80 fall?

FALL = GRADIENT X DISTANCE. For example, calculate the fall in a 50 metre section of foul water pipe work if the gradient is to be 1 in 80. A gradient of 1 in 80 is converted to a number instead of a ratio – 1 / 80 = 0.0125. Fall = 0.0125 x 50. Fall = 0.625 metres or 625mm.

**What is Kappa factor?**

Cohen’s kappa coefficient (κ) is a statistic that is used to measure inter-rater reliability (and also intra-rater reliability) for qualitative (categorical) items.

### What is K number in pulp?

The kappa number is defined as the volume of 0.02 mole/L potassium permanganate solution consumed by 1 g of moisture-free pulp in an acidic medium. It is a measure of the reactivtity of, or the chemical consumption in bleaching operations by, the total residue lignin in the pulp.

### How do you measure pulp?

Record the total weight and subtract the base weight of the container. The difference between the two provides the weight of the dry pulp. Calculate the pulp density in terms of composition. Divide the weight of the dry pulp by the total weight of the slurry and multiply by 100.

**What is a 2% slope?**

Table of Common Slopes in Architecture

DEGREES | GRADIENT | PERCENT |
---|---|---|

1° | 1 : 57.29 | 1.7% |

1.15° | 1 : 50 | 2% |

1.19° | 1 : 48 | 2.08% |

2.86° | 1 : 20 | 5% |

#### What is a 2% slope in piping?

Minimum Pipe Slope

As a general rule, the recommended slope for most plumbing pipes is 1/4 inch vertical drop over every 1 horizontal foot, or about 2 percent, reveals Builder’s Calculator.