Why does Klebsiella pneumoniae make a capsule?

Why does Klebsiella pneumoniae make a capsule?

The capsule is generally considered to be an important virulence factor in K. pneumoniae. In vitro studies have shown that the capsule mediates protection against phagocytosis and the bactericidal effect of serum [2–5].

Does Klebsiella have capsule?

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a worrisome nosocomial pathogen with few known virulence factors, but the most important one is its capsule.

What are the most common stains used in capsule staining?

In this type of capsule staining procedure, the primary stain is crystal violet, and all parts of the cell take up the purple crystal violet stain. There is no mordant in the capsule staining procedure. A 20% copper sulfate solution serves a dual role as both the decolorizing agent and counterstain.

What does a capsule stain show?

The purpose of the capsule stain is to reveal the presence of the bacterial capsule. The water-soluble capsule of some bacterial cells is often difficult to see by standard simple staining procedures or after the Gram stain.

What are two things that make Klebsiella pneumoniae a virulent pathogen?

The factors that are implicated in the virulence of K. pneumoniae strains include capsular polysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, fimbrial adhesins, and siderophores (37, 38).

Why do bacterial capsules not stain easily?

Bacterial capsules are non-ionic, so neither acidic nor basic stains will adhere to their surfaces.

What does capsule stain test for?

The main purpose of capsule stain is to distinguish capsular material from the bacterial cell.

What are two things that are stained in a capsule stain?

What is Klebsiella pneumoniae in urine?

Klebsiella pneumoniae are bacteria that normally live in your intestines and feces. Experts refer to them as Gram-negative, encapsulated, and nonmobile bacteria. They also have a high tendency to become antibiotic resistant. These bacteria are harmless when they’re in your intestines or stool.

What is Klebsiella pneumoniae Gram stain?

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a gram-negative, lactose-fermenting, non-motile, aerobic rod-shaped bacterium. It has been a known human pathogen since it was first isolated in the late nineteenth century by Edwin Klebs.

What is a capsule stain?

Capsule stain is a type of differential stain which uses acidic and basic dyes to stain background & bacterial cells respectively so that presence of capsule is easily visualized. Capsule is synthesized in the cytoplasm and secreted to the outside of the cell where it surrounds the bacterium.

Why is capsule staining important?

How serious is Klebsiella pneumoniae UTI?

But klebsiella pneumoniae can be dangerous if they get into other parts of your body, especially if you’re already sick. They can turn into “superbugs” that are almost impossible to fight with common antibiotics. The germs can give you pneumonia, infect your wound or blood, and cause other serious problems.

How can I visualize the stain of a bacterial capsule?

Bacterial capsules are non-ionic, so neither acidic nor basic stains will adhere to their surfaces. Therefore, the best way to visualize them is to stain the background using an acidic stain (e.g., Nigrosine, congo red) and to stain the cell itself using a basic stain (e.g.,crystal violet, safranin, basic fuchsin and methylene blue).

How do you stain for Klebsiella pneumoniae with crystal violet?

B. Anthony’s stain method. Place a single drop of crystal violet on a clean microscope slide, adjacent to the frosted edge. Using a flamed loop and sterile technique, add three loopful of test bacterium (any capsulated bacteria such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, Streptococcus pneumoniae) from broth culture.

What is the role of capsule expression in Klebsiella pneumoniae infection?

In a previous study of selected K. pneumoniae UTI isolates, it was reported that capsule formation prevents the assembly of functional type 1 fimbriae on the bacterial surface (26). The authors suggested that capsule expression most likely interferes at the level of fimbrial assembly in the outer membrane.

Is capsule polysaccharide a virulence factor in Klebsiella pneumoniae?

The capsule polysaccharide (CPS) of K. pneumoniae has long been viewed as an important virulence factor that promotes resistance to phagocytosis and serum bactericidal activity.

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