What does exfoliative toxin do?
Exfoliative toxins (ETs) are secreted virulence factors produced by staphylococci. These serine proteases specifically cleave desmoglein 1 (Dsg1) in mammals and are key elements in staphylococcal skin infections.
What is exfoliative toxin A and B?
Exfoliative Toxins S. aureus strains that cause blistering disease produce either exfoliative toxin A (ETA) or exfoliative toxin B (ETB), which are serologically distinct molecules. While ETA is encoded on a phage genome, ETB is encoded on a large plasmid.
What exotoxin does Staphylococcus aureus produce?
Some strains produce one or more additional exoproteins, which include toxic shock syndrome toxin-1 (TSST-1), the staphylococcal enterotoxins (SEA, SEB, SECn, SED, SEE, SEG, SEH, and SEI), the exfoliative toxins (ETA and ETB), and leukocidin.
What is alpha toxin examples?
Staphylococcus aureus alpha toxin, a membrane-disrupting toxin that creates pores causing hemolysis and tissue damage. Clostridium perfringens alpha toxin, a membrane-disrupting toxin with phospholipase C activity, which is directly responsible for gas gangrene and myonecrosis. Pseudomonas aeruginosa alpha toxin.
What bacteria has alpha toxin?
α-Toxin is a soluble hemolytic protein exotoxin secreted by Staphylococcus aureus considered as the major factor contributing to the pathogenicity of S. aureus.
Is exfoliative toxin A superantigen?
Viewing the data as a whole, we conclude that SSSS is not a superantigen-mediated disease and that the exfoliative toxins are not superantigens. The data and the clinical picture of SSSS support our thesis that these toxins are most likely unique serine proteases which act on an unknown target in the upper epidermis.
What causes Ritter’s disease?
Staphylococcus-Scalded Skin Syndrome (STAFF lo cok us SKAWL did skin SIN drome), also known as Scalded Skin Syndrome, SSSS, or Ritter’s Disease, is a skin infection caused by a bacteria called Staphylococcus aureus. This infection produces a toxin that can affect skin all over the body.
What causes impetigo?
Impetigo is a skin infection caused by one or both of the following bacteria: group A Streptococcus and Staphylococcus aureus. This page focuses on impetigo caused by group A Streptococcus (group A strep). In addition to impetigo, group A strep cause many other types of infections.
Which bacteria produce exotoxins?
Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria produce exotoxins.
Who produces alpha toxin?
What is a Type 1 toxin?
Type 1 toxins, such as superantigens, do not directly enter cells but bind to surface receptors, triggering specific responses. Type 2 toxins cause direct cell damage and there are many examples of these that are linked to bacterial pathogenesis (e.g. DNAse or protease enzymes).
What food causes Staphylococcus?
Various types of foods serve as an optimum growth medium for S. aureus. Foods that have been frequently implicated in SFD are meat and meat products, poultry and egg products, milk and dairy products, salads, bakery products, especially cream-filled pastries and cakes, and sandwich fillings [2, 6, 30].