Why is Echinococcus so harmful to humans?
Cystic echinococcosis / hydatid disease Human infection with E. granulosus leads to the development of one or more hydatid cysts located most often in the liver and lungs, and less frequently in the bones, kidneys, spleen, muscles and central nervous system.
What is the final host of Echinococcus granulosus?
Hosts. Echinococcus granulosus definitive hosts are wild and domestic canids.
How is alveolar echinococcosis treated?
Alveolar echinococcosis requires chemotherapy with or without surgery; radical surgery is the preferred approach in suitable cases. Effective treatment involves benzimidazoles administered continuously for at least 2 years and patient monitoring for 10 years or more since recurrence is possible.
How do humans get infected with Echinococcus granulosus?
Echinococcus granulosus eggs can survive snow and freezing conditions. Humans can be exposed to these eggs by “hand-to-mouth” transfer or contamination. By ingesting food, water or soil contaminated with stool from infected dogs. This might include grass, herbs, greens, or berries gathered from fields.
What is the treatment for echinococcosis?
Chemotherapy, cyst puncture, and PAIR (percutaneous aspiration, injection of chemicals and reaspiration) have been used to replace surgery as effective treatments for cystic echinococcosis. However, surgery remains the most effective treatment to remove the cyst and can lead to a complete cure.
What is hydatid of Morgagni in female?
In the female, the most cephalic portions of the mullerian ducts do not enter into the formation of the fallopian tube and may be found as small cystlike structures attached to the tube. They are called the hydatids of Morgagni.
What is a cyst of Morgagni?
A paratubal cyst, also known as a paraovarian cyst or hydatid cyst of Morgagni, is a closed, fluid-filled mass that develops beside or near the ovary and fallopian tube (also referred to adnexa), but is never attached to them.
Which medication will prevent alveolar echinococcosis?
Alveolar Echinococcosis Effective treatment involves benzimidazoles administered continuously for at least 2 years and patient monitoring for 10 years or more since recurrence is possible. This has inhibited progression of alveolar echinococcosis and reduced lesion size in approximately half of treated cases.
How is echinococcosis diagnosed?
granulosus is endemic suggests a diagnosis of cystic echinococcosis. Imaging techniques, such as CT scans, ultrasonography, and MRIs, are used to detect cysts. After a cyst has been detected, serologic tests may be used to confirm the diagnosis. Alveolar echinococcosis is typically found in older people.
What is Torted hydatid of Morgagni?
Morgagni) The hydatid of Morgagni is a small embryological remnant at the upper pole of the testis, often referred to as the testicular appendage. Torsion can occur spontaneously. When torted it can result in pain secondary to ischaemia of the cyst.
What causes appendix testis?
The appendix testis is a vestigial remnant of the Müllerian duct, from which female reproductive organs form in the embryo. In boys, it has no function, much as the appendix in our abdomen has no function. More than half of all boys are born with an appendix testis, usually with no ill effects.
What is e alveolar echinococcosis?
Alveolar echinococcosis. Alveolar echinococcosis, also referred as hepatic alveolar echinococcosis or E. alveolaris, is a more aggressive and invasive form of hepatic hydatid disease caused by Echinococcus multilocularis. It mimics a slow-growing tumor, as in contrast to E. granulosus it does not form a well defined encapsulated mass,…
What are the treatment options for alveolar echinococcosis?
For alveolar echinococcosis, surgical removal of cysts combined with chemotherapy (using albendazole and/or mebendazole) for up to two years after surgery is the only sure way to completely cure the disease. However, in inoperable cases, chemotherapy by itself can also be used.
What is the difference between alveolar and polycystic echinococcosis cysts?
While the cysts found in those with alveolar and polycystic echinococcosis are similar to those found in those with cystic echinococcosis, the alveolar and polycystic echinococcosis cysts usually have multiple compartments and have infiltrative as opposed to expansive growth.
How does Alveolar disease affect the body?
Alveolar disease usually begins in the liver but can spread to other parts of the body, such as the lungs or brain. When the liver is affected the person may have abdominal pain, weight loss, and turn slightly yellow from jaundice. Lung disease may cause pain in the chest, shortness of breath and coughing.