What is SOX9 a marker for?
We show here that SOX9 is an astrocyte-specific nuclear marker in all major areas of the CNS outside of the neurogenic regions. Based on SOX9 immunolabeling, we document that astrocytes constitute a smaller fraction of total cell number than previously estimated in the normal adult mouse brain.
Where is SOX9 located?
Mutations in the human SRY-related gene, SOX9, located on chromosome 17, have recently been associated with the sex reversal and skeletal dysmorphology syndrome, campomelic dysplasia. In order to clarify the role of this gene in skeletal development, we have studied the expression of mouse Sox9 during embryogenesis.
Is SOX9 a stem cell marker?
Vidal, V. P. et al. Sox9 is essential for outer root sheath differentiation and the formation of the hair stem cell compartment.
What are the functions of SRY genes and SOX9 genes?
SRY and SOX9 share and regulate a significant number of common targets, which serve important functions in early events in testis differentiation, including Sertoli cell fate determination, M germ cell definition, and testis cord formation and differentiation.
Where is the SRY gene located on the Y chromosome?
The gene SRY (sex determining region of the Y), located at the distal region of the short arm of the Y chromosome, is necessary for male sex determination in mammals. SRY initiates the cascade of steps necessary to form a testis from an undifferentiated gonad.
What activates the SRY gene?
There is evidence from work on suppression of male development that DAX1 can interfere with function of SF1, and in turn transcription of SRY by recruiting corepressors. There is also evidence that GATA binding protein 4 (GATA4) and FOG2 contribute to activation of SRY by associating with its promoter.
How the SRY gene induces the fetus to become male?
The Sry protein is a transcription factor that can bind to regions of testis-specific DNA, bending specific DNA and activating or enhancing its abilities to promote testis formation, marking the first step towards male, rather than female, development in the embryo.
What happens if SRY is not present?
Comparably, if SRY is not present for XX, there will be a lack of the TDF based on no Y chromosome. The lack of TDF will allow the cortex of embryonic gonads to develop in to ovaries, which will then produce estrogen, and lead to the development of other female sexual characteristics.
Where is SRY expressed?
Sry is expressed exclusively within the supporting cells of the genital ridges, directing them towards the fate of a Sertoli cell (Albrecht and Eicher, 2001), which are the primary constituents of testis cords and which sequester primordial germ cells and facilitate spermatogenesis.
Is SRY same as to TDF?
Abstract. The testis-determining factor gene (TDF) lies on the Y chromosome and is responsible for initiating male sex determination. SRY is a gene located in the sex-determining region of the human and mouse Y chromosomes and has many of the properties expected for TDF.
Is Sox9 essential for cartilage formation in teratomas?
Thus, Sox9 is essential for cartilage formation in teratomas. Figure 5: Teratomas derived from wild-type, Sox9+/- and Sox9-/- ES cell lines. a, d, h, wild type; b, e, f, i, Sox9+/-; c, g, j, Sox9-/-. a – c, Alcian blue staining of histological sections. Blue-stained cartilage (arrows) is observed in wild-type and Sox9+/- teratomas.
Is Sox9 a transcriptional regulator of chondrocyte fate?
Our studies demonstrate that Sox9 functions cell-autonomously in the formation of cartilages and is an essential transcriptional regulator of chondrocyte cell fate. Generation of Sox9 mutant ES cell lines.
How many DPC are SOX9 chimaeras?
Figure 1: Generation of Sox9 -mutant ES cell lines. Figure 2: Sox9 chimaeras at 15.5 dpc. Figure 3: Sox9 +/- ( a – c) and Sox9 -/- chimaeras ( d – k) at 15.5 dpc. Figure 4: Sox9 chimaeras at 11.5 and 12.5 dpc. Figure 5: Teratomas derived from wild-type, Sox9 +/- and Sox9 -/- ES cell lines.
What is the role of SOX9 in gonadal development?
Morais da Silva, S. et al. Sox9 expression during gonadal development implies a conserved role for the gene in testis differentiation in mammals and birds. Nature Genet. 14, 62–68 (1996). Ng, L.-J. et al. Sox9 binds DNA, activates transcription, and coexpresses with type II collagen during chondrogenesis in the mouse.